Shia Islam

Apr 22nd, 2007, in News, by

Pressure on Shia Islamic groups in Indonesia is growing.

On 10th April in Sampang, Madura island, East Java, the home of a Shiite cleric was attacked by a mob of more than 100 people. The attackers carried sharp weapons and attempted to enter the cleric’s home but were prevented from doing so by police. No-one was hurt. metrotv

Still in East Java, but on the mainland, on 20th April thousands of people in the town of Bangil, near Pasuruan, marched to the office of the Attorney General’s department demanding the banning of organisations which promote Shia Islam in Indonesia.

The protestors, marching under the banner of a group called “Pemuda Ahlussunah Bangil”, or Bangil Sunnah Followers Youth, had previously gathered in the town square after Friday prayers, and then went about the town putting up banners condemning Shia Islam. On their passage through the town the marchers menacingly passed by the offices and homes of organisations and people thought to be most responsible for spreading Shia Islam in the Bangil area.

The leader of the protestors, Habib Umas Assegaf, said Shia Islam was heretical and responsible for such outrageous teachings and practises as contractual marriage. He said if Shia organisations were not banned he would bring even more people out onto the streets in future.

Asis Widarto of the Attorney General’s office in Bangil met with representatives of the mob and said his department would take into consideration the concerns of the protestors. He asked the Pemuda Ahlussunah Bangil to provide the Attorney General with evidence that Shia Islam was indeed heretical and thereafter such material would be studied by the comically named “Tim Pakem” (Pengawas Aliran Kepercayaan Masyarakat, Overseers of the Peoples’ Beliefs), this august body being composed of policemen, state lawyers, and members of the National Unity Board (Badan Kesatuan Bangsa (Bakesbang)). antara

Hasyim Muzadi of the Nahdlatul Ulama travelled to Bangil on 22nd April to attempt to calm the situation. He met with dozens of senior clerics in the town and attempted to explain the history of various Islamic sects, starting with Khawariji Islam, and moving onto the Shia.

Hasyim asked NU people in Bangil and Pasuruan to be rational, the differences between Sunni and Shia could not be solved by fighting. What was worse the NU was currently seeking to solve the Sunni vs Shia conflict in Iraq and the actions of NU members in Bangil were not helping. jawapos

The leader of the NU’s youth group in Bangil, GP Ansor, Mr Fahrur Rozi, also spoke out on the matter. He hoped that Ansor members were not involved in the anti-Shia demonstrations. “Gus” Fahrur said the PAKEM (Pengawasan Aliran Kepercayaan Masyarakat) was authorised to decide whether a certain belief was heretical or not.

Meanwhile Zainal Suwari, the local head of Banser, another NU youth group, said none of his members were involved in the demo. jawapos

On a later occasion, on 29th April, Hasyim Muzadi advised Shiite Muslims in Indonesia not to say bad things about any of the prophet Muhammad’s companions, like Abu Bakar, Umar bin Khatab and Usman, nor any of the early sheikhs, like Sheikh Abdul Qadir Djaelani, Imam Bukhori and Imam Muslim. If they did it would upset the feelings of NU members, he said.

He also said that efforts to divide Sunni and Shia Muslims in Indonesia were part of a wider international plot to weaken Islam, as was to be seen in Iraq and Palestine. tempo

150 Comments on “Shia Islam”

  1. Teng says:

    It is odd that those fanatics reject Shia Islam, yet there’s a lot of support for Iran, the biggest Shia Islam country in the world.

    It’s sad that there is mob action to attack a different kind of “Islam”. It’s even sadder you actually have a tim pakem in Indonesia.

    I see this country getting more pathetic every year, and it makes my heart bleed. 🙁

  2. Saipul says:

    Yes, sadly our country is in a downward spiral.

  3. El Gran Combo Puertorico says:

    Islam is destroying Indonesia from inside.
    Goodbye Indonesia. Adioooosss.

  4. Arema says:

    They “attacked” everyone else, and now they start attacking “their own allies”. That said a lot about their character right?

    I wish government would be objective, formulate a plan, and make a bold move to put an end to this “destructive civil war”. We are busy settling internal disputes while other countries are taking off to globalization era. Indo, please, wake up! *cries*

    On 10th April in Sampang, Madura island, East Java, the home of a Shiite cleric was attacked by a mob of more than 100 people. The attackers carried sharp weapons and attempted to enter the cleric’s home but were prevented from doing so by police. No-one was hurt.

    I wish the police was this fast and responsive when defending others as well. On this case, they did a good job.

  5. Agusto says:

    The culprit is “Islam” it is infiltrating into the system and the Indonesian mindset! Indonesia is going down the drain just like Iran, that good old Persia!

  6. Robert says:

    In the article Sunni vs. Shia:

    Hasyim Muzadi, the leader of Nahdlatul Ulama, said he wanted to be the mediator in the Sunni versus Shia bloodbath in Iraq.

    When I read the article above I suggest before leaving for Baghdad, he pays a visit to Sampang. It might be wise to deal with this sectarian violence first before stepping in the footlights on the Iraq stage.

    The picture of Indonesia being a neutral third party between Shiites and Sunnites is showing some cracks here. First Indonesia supported the UN resolution on Iran, and secondly there is Sunni vs. Shia violence on Indonesian soil. The Iranian Government will be monitoring Indonesian developments argus-eyed and see whether Indonesia is capable of resolving sectarian violence in its own backyard. If not, Indonesia’s neutrality will be doubted, and Indonesia’s aspirations for being a mediator in the Sunni vs. Shia conflict will not be honored.

  7. This country is going down. More people are so stupid and think that they have the right Islam. Yeah right.

  8. Aluang anak Bayang says:

    Still in East Java, but on the mainland, on 20th April thousands of people in the town of Bangil, near Pasuruan, marched to the office of the Attorney General’s department demanding the banning of organisations which promote Shia Islam in Indonesia.

    Lazy and unresourceful people need religion to cling on. What a waste of time over trivial issue! And over 90% of these thousands are earning less than USD2 a day. They worried more about religion than putting food on the table for their hungry wives and kids. And yet their religion tells then to have more kids.

  9. Suhada says:

    Assalamualikum. Cases like Ahmadiyah and Shia give us a grim, grief and yet vivid picture of our””the whole society in common, and Muslims in particular””failure to see the differences among us in a proper and civilized manner. Among this chaotic and enduring crisis, people are desperately see religions as the ultimate catharsis. People tend to identify their most selves within religious terms. Samuel P. Huntington once said that “for people seeking identity, enemies are essential, and the potentially most dangerous enmities occur across the fault lines between religions.” And no matter how reluctant I am to accept his theses on “Clash of Civilization”, I just can’t help not to admit that he got his point well nailed on this matter””religious feuds have became more and more familiar to us recently.

    Sunni is by far the majority within Islam society. Sunnites accept 4 first Kalifah (Abu Bakar, ‘Umar, ‘Ushman and ‘Ali). Sunnites steadfastly and strongly hold””and rather sternly in some sense””The Holy Quran and The Sunna as well. They follow the conventions (ijma’) approved by their acknowledged religious leaders.

    Shia is just 8,75% from the whole Muslims entire the globe. They are deeply connected to Ali, the cousin as well as the son in law of Rasulullah. They consider Ali was the legitimate successor of Rasulullah””they foresaw him as the only figure inherited the prophecy charisma of Rasulullah.

    The conflict between Sunnites and Shiites is almost as old as Islam itself. When Rasulullah died in the year 632 the Sunnites and Shiites argued about who deserved to be the successor of the late Rasulullah. The Shiites believes that Rasulullah had chose Ali as his successor. Yet the Sunnites insisted that Abu Bakar was the one who deserved the position. Sunnites, being the majority, won the vote””hence Abu Bakar was elected as the first Kalifah. Though later Ali was chosen as the fourth Khalifah , after his death the leadership of Islam world flee from the family of Rasulullah. Thus the conflict had become more severe and chronic and grew into bloody rivalry. Sunnites, being the vast majority, rise as the victor. The climax is when, in the year 680, a group of Shiites were slaughtered in Karbala (South of Iraq) and Husain, the grandson of Rasullulah himself, were killed and beheaded in the battlefield.

    And the rivalry among Sunnites and Shiites is never been totally resolved. Here and there, now and then we can see the rivalry sparks into bloody incidents. The genocide of the Kurdis Shiites by Saddam Hussein””being a Sunnite”” gave us a vivid excerpt of the very matter. The ones that happen in this beloved country of ours is just another proofs of the legacy. Nevertheless we must not taking this matter in such an apathetic manner. It is ridiculous to refer other Muslims who differ from us””be it in the comprehension of Islam or in the traditions and certain creeds””as heretics, or even infidels.

    There are some points that must be considered on this matter:
    1) Should we perceive the differences on the exegesis on certain teaching of Islam as a legitimate justification to charge some groups committing heresy and infidelity?
    2) Put it that way””the groups really committing heresy and infidelity. Should we urge the government to ban the groups?
    Within the history of Islam there are many groups and sects that are considered as heretics. But none of the group are banned, thus they still exist nowadays. Take the Qadarriyah group””who believe in the free will””which perceived as heretics by the majority of Sunnites for example. The Shiites are obviously also considered as heretics by the Sunnites. Conflicts and frictions happened, but the banning is never been viewed as the way to resolve the conflicts among them. Thus, those “heretics” and “infidels” never ceased to exist. Oppressed might be, but not necessarily be extinguished or banned. Furthermore, banning such an abstract matters as ideas and beliefs is a waste.

    Let us learn from the very phrase of our Holy Quran in Al-Baqarah verse 109: “Many among the people of the Book wish they could somehow turn you back to unbelief, due to their selfish envy, after the truth has become quite clear to them. Forgive them and bear with them until Allah brings about His decision; rest assured that Allah has power over everything.” It might be that the verse is speaking about Judaism and Christianity””which referred as the people of the Book. But it also shed light on how we must react on differences in religious matters, be it within our own religion as well as with other religions. Allah The All-Mighty Himself bids us to “forgive them and bear with them” even to such irritating and mischief intention to “turn you back to unbelief”. Since Allah will eventually bring his own His decision. Let us “rest assured that Allah has power over everything.”

    Let me quote the words of Wesley Ariarajah, a pastor in United Methodist Church of Srilanka: “Right here we are not speaking of absolute truth, rather the language of faith and love to the All-Mighty. The language of faith is indeed the language of love.” Since the language of faith is the language of love, nothing can be more derailed and dissented from our very faith than violently coercing others to accept our interpretation on our religion””or even further, oppressing them and referring them as infidels. Faith, as being the expression of our very love to the All-Mighty is intimate yet subjective. Thus any form of coercion and oppression to alter the love is not plausible in any sense.

    Let us also learn from the history of NU. Being one of the largest Islam religious organization in Indonesia, NU once was being viewed as heretic and infidels by some Muslim reformists. The strong ambience of traditional culture””in this case Javanese culture””within religious practices of NU members somehow was being scrutinized and perceived as a form of allying God with tradition. Thus NU was considered practicing idolatry and secured them the charge of committing heresy and infidelity. But now, those percept is proved to be nothing but erroneous prejudice due to lack of understanding. And NU rises as arguably the biggest and most influential religious organization in this country.

    The rising pressure on minor sects and group in Islam recently somehow is driven and strongly influenced by Salafi-Wahabbi concepts. This intolerant and radical””in many cases violent””fundamentalism is flourishing all around this once beautiful and peaceful country of ours. Sadly to said, their jargons and rhetoric somehow seem to be very appealing to many of us. More and more people eagerly and anxiously to jump joining the bandwagon of this over-zeal men of faith. They foresee this as a pleasing, relieving yet “religious” catharsis on their daily burdening crisis.

    Their teleological paradigm as well as their obsession on the establishment of Syariah somehow threatening the very basis of our beloved country, the diversity. Thus our government should not act meekly on this bunch of zealots. They are free to express their very thoughts. But not to violently coerce other to share their ideas as well.

    I always perceive their stern, strict and close-minded textualism and somehow Arabic exegesis on Islam as bibliolatry. They become bigots. And according to Professor Charles Kimball””Yes, my brother Veritas, I’ve read his book””those are the vivid indication of a religion being corrupted, derailed and biased. I depicted this matter””on bibliolatry and the urgency of deArabization of Islam””more thoroughly in my previous comments on Baiturrahman Mosque, Anti Apostasy and Biblical law. As for Professor Kimball theses on this matter, readers can refer to the profound and incisive post made by Veritas on the topic of Christianization.

    Hence let us learn from the example of Rasulullah himself. Being a leader he was always show himself as inclusive and respecting diversity among his contemporaries. Thus we might, hopefully, eventually be able to perceive our differences in a better light. A light of respect and understanding. That we’ll be able to share this “fragile blue planet”””as once said by Joe Satriani, that virtuoso guitarist””of ours within peaceful, harmonious and civilized manner. Allahuakbar!! Wassalam.

    P.S: Hopefully this post also give a proper answer on my dear sister Julita’s inquiry in her recent post on the topic of Christianization: “Attacked on Shia Moslem, why do this? Very sad, indeed.” And I’m deeply grateful an thankful for the delightfully brilliant and astutely profound post made by Veritas on the very same topic. Veritas””the latin for “truth”””you’ve got yourself well deserved nick my brother. May the peace of Allah be with you..

  10. Z Fazel says:

    It is sad that we Muslims are still the victims of ‘Jahalat’ & ‘Intolerance’.

    I urge those attacking shias first learn about shias and then start passing judgements. They should not fall victim to agents (so called mullahs) who try to mislead them.

    No wonder, the energy of Muslims is used in internal fighting and the real enemy has a field day usurping Muslim wealth and keeping them subjgated.

    If following the rulings of Ahlul-Bait (as) is a sin, then Allah forbid what path Muslims are sliding into.

  11. Mr.wrong says:

    salam. first of all a lot of people in indonesia don’t know,that they are sunni,shia or wahabee/salafee.
    In the begining the shia were the enemy of Islam.
    They hate H.omar ibn khetab and call him non muslim. the hate Abu bakir. they call Abu Talib a muslim,even he never said that to proph. Mohammad s. ,even proph. Mohammad s. asked him to say it in his ear.
    The shia rejecting the legitimacy of the first three caliphs,they only accept Ali.
    The shia believe in Mutaa/segha temporary marriage.they may marry women for 1day,30days, and are also aloowed to make temporary marriage with 6years old girl,but they are saying,that you shall not f*ck her.
    The shia use soil from the killing place of Amam Hussian in their prayers.and make segda on that soil.
    The shia don’t pray the Tar’raweeh prayers in Ramadan.
    The shia rejection of some Sunni hadith.
    I have to say,that shia religion is best for the people,who accept the prostitute in their countries.the temporary marriage is kind of prostitution.
    If indonesian people want to know their real religion, they have to say,that they are Sunni with Hanafi Madhab.
    don’t jump from one religion to another,because the give you money. I saw a lot of people in indonesia from islam to chriananity,from hanafi to salafee, from hanafi to shia by accepting money from them.

  12. Parvez says:

    Your knowledge is little go and see hadith and quran carefully the mootah which you say prostitution avoid because it was started by prophet mohammed And it was banned by second khalifa. And second thing word shia. The shia word came many time in quran so go ask your head or no head priest what I said is true or not if you get your answer thanks allah if nots ask me insha allah I will give at least ten reference from quran and from your scholar book.

  13. Jafar says:

    It is still time for sunny to except true islam the path of mohammmad (swas) or shia
    or else prepare to go to hell.

  14. Maro says:

    “Dad I’m married for 24 hours”

    Does that sentence seem right to you? There is one issue I have with the Shia sect. I am not one to be hateful of shias, in fact I am marrying one.

    But I wonder, if you have any common sense , any logic how can you not see that a temporary marriage ( one day or 30 days or wat ever) contradicts the self-modesty proposed by the Quran for Muslims to follow.

    As a female, I would feel uncomfortable in such a casual relationship.

  15. Asad Ahmed says:

    As-Sallam Alaikum,
    Shia or Sabai (a sect founded by ibn-e-saba)
    Sunni and Shia conflicts, started from the time, when IMAM HUSSAIN (R.A.) martyred in the city of SHIAN-e-ALI, as Centre of Khilafat moved to KUFA by HAZRAT ALI (R.A.), where so called shian-e-ALI (R.A.) lived this group was not a true believer even they used Hazrat ALI (R.A.) name as a covering, if they were true devotee then they must have stand against yazed (maloun) to save IMAM HUSSAIN (R.A.) but they firstly called IMAM HUSSAIN (R.A.) to kufa for taking bayat and after HIS arrival this shian-e-ALI (R.A.) group betrayed him.

    Sunni must keep eyes on the activities of Shia (sabai) group and must try to spread truth about them.

    I do not know much about what kind of shia sect based in Indonesia but here in Pakistan there are about 6 different sub sects of shias 3 of them use to say “Ya ALI(R.A.) Madad” (Oh ALI HELP US) and answer to this is “Mowla Ali Madad” word mowla means “helper” or “Friend”, Instead of Salam. that is based in SUNNI Muslims, this is one which i can mention now, beside this they have soo many disbeliefs which certainly makes one to see them as infidels.

  16. jaffar says:

    1. Shiahs and Sunnis are the largest two schools of thought, besides others.
    2. If there are differences, they are at the level of the scholars but not at the level of the practicing level. Anybody who believes in Allah and in the holy Prophet is classified as Muslim by the holy prophet himself and it is not upto anybody else to decide or teach otherwise.
    3. Throughout history, it has been proven that beliefs cannot be suppressed by force. If somebody believes he is closer to Almighty Allah, he should behave accordingly so that the others learn from and be impressed by him. Let us take lessons from History and behave in a civilized manner and set a good example to others rather than terrorize others.

  17. behroez says:

    Mr Wrong (what a befitting name) how wrong you are. Just check your Bukhari Hadith and you’ll find out that the Tar’raweeh prayers during Ramadan as they are being practised by the Sunni is an invention of Umar and quite AGAINST the instructions of Rasul (pbuh) concerning these prayers during Ramadan, the proof is in your own Hadith!

  18. Hossain says:

    To all brother & sister in Islam,Salamalikum,

    Any body calling shia infedel must first know that 1)Shia belive in Alah,2)The Holy
    Quran 3) Prophet Mohammed S.A.W and only those commandments which has
    come from holy prophet directly and reject all other no matter however much it
    is followed by other,during prophets life time too there were Munafiques and the
    prophet knew but did not call them kafir,what all muslim should be doing is to
    stick to the right hadith and reject all the stupid hadith which are in plenty in both
    Bokhari and Muslim,as the prophet himself said reject those hadith attributed to
    me if it goes against Quran.
    Majority of muslim around the globe are just blind followers and never apply their
    mind or invistigate,no worder they are the most stuipd lot.

  19. fellow muslim says:

    WHY are we bickering and slurring different sects.we should all be striving to gain knowledge on the true nature of islam. in islam we are all brothers . we believe in one Allah and his rasool peace be upon him. while we fight we cannot be united. instead of bickering over our differences we should be focusing on the elements that unite us. the other religeons have always taken advantage of using our differences to create enmity amongst us. if their is fire in the house who cares about what goes on in the city. we need to put the fire out. it is against the nature of islam to use deplorable language that insults another. for decades muslims have been at war withn themselves thats why they are in the state they are in.

    instead of fanning the flames we should all be striving to be the best muslims we can be ourselves. and if we do that we have no time to worry about what another muslim is. and if each muslim brother and sister do this islam itself by Allahs grace should raise us

  20. Purba Negoro says:

    Ban them- they are not allowed. Simple.

    We are not orthodox Islamic, we are derivative Sufis and hence subsect of Shiites.
    We will not tolerate any attempts at Arabic colonialism of our nation.

    ALL who attempt to change the Pancasila construct of Indonesia are enemy of the State- no matter which religious hat they elect to wear.

    A provakator is a provokator is a traitor- end of argument. They must be expelled or killed. Simple.

  21. timdog says:

    Purba Negoro said:

    we are derivative Sufis and hence subsect of Shiites

    Wait a cotton-pickin’ minute Mas… ah, on second thoughts, forget it – you can be whatever you want to be little fellow, and don’t let anyone tell you otherwise…

  22. timdog says:

    … although, one finds oneself incapable of resisting the urge to point out that Sufiism is not a school, nor a sect, nor specifically tied to either Shiism on Sunniism. It is a generic, vast-ranging, much-encompassing – not to mention much-misused and misunderstood – term…
    But apart from that PN, you can be anything you choose to be, we’ll still love you…

  23. Purba Negoro says:


    sorry- typo. It should read “not subsect of Shiites”.

    Yes- it changes things a lot.
    And you are very correct about Sufiism- it is my typo.
    Sufi is subsect of Sunni- but more accurately Indonesian Sufiism is really pre-existing fertility/ancestor worship- so very unorthodox and enigmatic.

    I deeply I wish Pak Suharto had followed his heart and made Kejawen an official religion.

    This would have permanently cut the Achilles of Islam in Indonesia- we would have permanent political block of loyal Kejawen immovable to external agit prop- to oppose Islam resurgence in politics.

    The point is we have so many agitator trying to fix something that is unbroken. It is very dangerous and destabilising to society.
    Indonesia is one giant compromise- a perpetual balancing act- one false foot step- we fall.

    We are happy enough as we are- why do these external moron always agitate.
    This is what I mean.

  24. Andy says:

    Purba-We will not tolerate any attempts at Arabic colonialism of our nation.

    Ok good point….But that makes me wonder..Islam, whatever form it is was formed and originated in the Arab world. Even things like the eating of pork came about because in the Arab world it is plainly not the thing to do. Jews in Israel also consider the eating of pork sinful. In that part of the world they are clearly dirty and inedible. As for the wearing of the jilbab, spare a thought for the poor lady who has to ride a camel across the desert in 50 degree plus heat. Need to protect the head I think.

    So my question is, for such a proud culture, why did Islam spread so quickly across Indonesia to the point that 87 % follow it? Buddhism is a lot more part of the history of the nation as Borobodur temple shows.

  25. timdog says:

    Ah! Thank goodness for that PN.You had me worried for a moment there…
    Sufiism though is not specifically a “subsect” of Sunniism; there are a huge number of schools, sects and branches that get lumped together under the vague label “Sufiism”: there is no direct theological connection between, say, Kejawen, Aleviism, and Moroccan marabout-veneration. Shiism too has its “Sufi” manifestations…

    Things would indeed be very different had Kejawen been made an official religion… what a terrible shame that it wasn’t…

  26. Purba Negoro says:

    The best argument in favour of Islam as opposed to Buddhsim or Hinduism- is it does not impose Caste.
    All- rich poor, diseased, healthy, deformed, not deformed “untouchable (modern Indian dhalit caste [100+million])” are equal in the eyes of Allah.
    Perhaps if Christianity had come at the time, instead of Islam- Indonesia would be Christian.

    Buddhism is not the ideal as the West romantically paints it. Example- Buddhism views any disease- including accidental loss of limb from landmine- as sign of punishment for a past life of wickedness- thus the person is now untouchable- a pariah.

    And one thing the Dutch did do correctly- was not proselytise like the Spaniard or Portuguese- as in outlying Indonesian islands or Philippines and Southern America.

    We are all aware of the disgusting and totally inhuman caste hatred of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

    Bali too retains the caste system: “tatakrama kasta”- where there are very strict and rigid hierarchy on many aspects of daily interaction.
    Once again- the beautiful religious ideal has been warped grotesquely by Man.

    Hinduism is a very expensive religion. You can go ask any Balinese and he will happily complain about the costs involved as non-negotiable obligation as a Hindu of his rank or caste.
    The huge funerary rites, the marriage rituals, the list is endless- and all very, very expensive.

    Islam- not as practiced by many people- is a very minimalist and beautiful religion.
    To convert to Islam is quick and easy to- only need to state the Profession of Faith.
    Islam is very cheap- all one must do is pay the Zakat: charity which is 5% of annual income.

    This points out the fundamental difference between Shia and Sunni.
    Sunii sees 5 pillars as basis of Faith- Professoin of Faith (Shahadar), Prayer (Solat), Fast (Saum), Charity (Zakat), and Hajj.

    Shiite sees 7:
    Walaya (guard the religion), Taharah (ritual bathing for Purity), Shahada, Solat, Saum, Zakat and the very worst= Jihad.

    Shiite do not correctly comprehend the true Jihad and warp it into whatever meaning convenient for their political motives.

    Jihad is best defined as mastery of the ego.
    Not an easy thing like killing people or blowing up planes.
    Much harder- subjugation of the self.

    Only two people so far have succeeded- Christ and Muhammed.

  27. Aluang Anak Bayang says:

    @ Andy

    So my question is, for such a proud culture, why did Islam spread so quickly across Indonesia to the point that 87 % follow it? Buddhism is a lot more part of the history of the nation as Borobodur temple shows.

    Have you heard of ‘Satu Nusa, Satu bangsa’ by our founding fathers? To unite the vast nusantara, Islam were chosen (in hindsight it was a bad choice) as large number of the Javanese were already pseudo moslem. Kejawen were not an option because other minor ethnic groups would feel they were being Javanized.

  28. Rob says:


    As a matter of interest, what is a pseudo Moslem? Is it anything like a pseudo Australian or a pseudo Indonesian?

  29. Aluang Anak Bayang says:

    In Indonesia, a pseudo Moslem is Moslem in name only. Probably know how to read out some prayer in Arabic, but don’t know what it means. Most Dayaks I know are pseudo Moslem (or pseudo Christian), you see them in the Masjid on Friday and the same group in a Church on Sunday. Thay are either very religious or nothing to better to do. Or like my sisters, wearing Jilbab to Bethany church because it was trendy to be Christian.

    Pseudo Australian – meaning ‘undesirables’.

  30. Rob says:

    Pseudo Indonesian? like Papuans and Acehnese and Manadoese and Ambonese?

    or more like Undesirables?

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